On Scotland and the Scotch Intellect, Origins of Democratic Culture: Pamphlets and Pamphleteering in Early Modern Britain Performance Art? Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England, Politics and Ideology in England, Politics and the British Civil Wars: Edinburgh, Politics and War in the Three Stuart Kingdoms Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Scripture, Politics Religion and the English Civil War Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics, 2nd ed. Edinburgh, Providence and the Invention of the United States, Providence in Early Modern Puritan Preaching in Puritanism Recalling the Scottish Covenants London, Records of the Kirk of Scotland containing the acts and proceedings of the General Assemblies from the year downwards as authenticated by the clerks of the assembly with notes and historical illustrations, I Reformation to Revolution: Politics and Religion Reformation's Preservation: opened in a sermon preached House of Commons, at the late solemne fast, Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Scotland, Scottish Calvinism: a Dark, Repressive Force?
Scottish Theologians and Preachers during the first Episcopal Period, Scottish Theology Select Biographies Select works of Robert Rollock, Seminary or University? Seven men of the Kirk Patrick Hamilton, The Birthpangs of Protestant England: Religious and The British Confederate: Archibald Campbell, The British Revolution, The Century of Revolution, The Covenant and the Covenanters The Covenant Idea as a Revolutionary Symbol: The Covenanters: The National Covenant and The Culture of Protestantism in Early Modern The Elizabethan Puritan Movement Berkeley, The Everyday Work of the Westminster Assembly, The Faith of the Scots London, The First Part wrote by himself, and the Second by Mr.
William Row sometime Minister of the Gospel at Ceres Vsed in the English congregation at Geneva: and approved by the famous and learned man John Calvin London, By the late Reverend and learned The Government of Scotland, The History of Preaching: From the close of the Reformation period to the end of the nineteenth century, , The History of Scotland to the Present Time, 3 vols The History of the Kenneth M. Callum G. Religion and Society in Scotland Since Edinburgh University Press. Studies in Scottish Church History.
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Manchester University Press. Donald Maclean. The Counter-Reformation in Scotland, David George Mullan. Episcopacy in Scotland: The History of an Idea, Edinburgh: John Donald. Adding to this direct action against the Restoration Church, the Cameronians must have hoped that the revival of the Covenants would promote the cause of a presbyterian settlement. Minor revisions to the texts were made, in a few places because the original wording was inapplicable to current circumstances, but mostly to indicate that the Societies thought that there was, in March , no reigning monarch to whom allegiance was owed.
Doing so allowed them to appropriate the legacy of the radical Covenanters of , and to give legitimacy to their own interpretation of the religious politics of the Restoration period, a reading unacceptable to more moderate presbyterians. Though the version of the Acknowledgement and Engagement the Cameronians used was recognisably based on the original, they reordered material and made substantial additions, as well as small alterations.
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On the other hand, the revisers of the document drew parallels and continuities between the faults of the s and those of more recent years. The Cameronians showed themselves the true heirs of the Covenanters of , and the most faithful of presbyterians in As in , the renewal was preceded by a day of fasting, which was intended to allow members of the Societies to reflect on personal and national breaches of the Covenants, and to recall the duties imposed by the oaths. On 3 March itself, Linning, after preaching to the large congregation, read from a paper the names of members who wished to confess their sins — relating to their compliance with the Restoration regime or extremism in nonconformity — before swearing the Covenants.
When called, these individuals stood and showed that they regretted their former behaviour. This was evidently a cathartic exercise, for Cameronians who had not previously notified Linning of their intention to confess sins started to do so. In , the group experienced a major schism when its three preachers and many lay members reconciled themselves to the Church of Scotland, now re-established on a presbyterian basis.
The Anglo-Scottish union of was an affront to many presbyterians. Because the union subjected Scotland to a British parliament of which the Anglican bishops were members, its presbyterian critics saw it as a breach of both Covenants. Rather than extirpating episcopacy in the terms of the Solemn League and Covenant, the union secured the position of the bishops, while creating a British union based not on religious uniformity, but on two distinct established Churches.
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In , moreover, the new British parliament further alienated presbyterian hard-liners by making substantial reforms to Scottish religious life, particularly by granting toleration of episcopalian nonconformity. The United Societies adapted the Acknowledgement of Sins and Engagement to Duties of , making very significant additions to the version of Though the Societies were small in number, their ideological influence was considerable, and their willingness to assert traditional presbyterian principles won them widespread sympathy.
Nevertheless, the Societies of , like their predecessors in , hoped to claim for themselves the legacy of the Covenanting revolution. Moreover, the Societies were consciously following the practice of when they decided to make accession to the Covenants a term of communion in the group. In spite of this, the group plausibly claimed to represent continuity with the Covenanting past, and to be the conscience of Scottish presbyterianism. Despite the re-establishment of presbyterianism in , many Scots believed, the Kirk was no longer committed to continuous Reformation. In , Macmillan and the Societies spoke most clearly for this tradition.
In the s, a new claimant to the legacy of the Covenants emerged in the form of the Secession Church, which split from the Church of Scotland after a dispute over lay patronage and theological change. By swearing the Covenants, moreover, the Seceders, who upheld Calvinist orthodoxy and presbyterian ecclesiology, could position themselves as distinct from liberalising tendencies in the Kirk and from the influential episcopalian evangelical George Whitefield, who had recently been active in Scotland.
It was only after this event that lay members were required to take the oaths. Though they set out to revive the National Covenant, as well as the Solemn League and Covenant, the Seceders swore only the Negative Confession of , omitting the lists of statutes and the civil bond devised in Furthermore, the Associate Presbytery adopted a completely new Acknowledgement of Sins and Engagement of Duties, together with a new bond testifying their commitment to the principles of the Covenants. These documents did much to emphasise the mid-eighteenth-century context of the renewal.
Though the Acknowledgement referred back to the errors of the s and the Restoration period, it was largely concerned with the faults of the Church since the revolution of It reflected the attitudes expressed in the Testimony the Associate Presbytery had issued in in justification of the Secession.
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Their newly composed bond not only testified their adherence to the Reformed religion and presbyterian government, but also expressed a resolve to reform their own lives. Rather, the Seceders participated in what was both a reaffirmation of traditional principles, and a re-appropriation of familiar practices.
The goal was not to historicise the Covenants, to understand them in seventeenth-century context, but to resituate them and their concept of Reformation in the eighteenth century. He rejected the concept of a national Church, arguing that the Covenants of Old Testament Israel and the Church-state they constituted had no equivalent in Christian societies.
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As protestants had insisted since the Reformation, Catholicism was riddled with errors. There were particular circumstances in which presbyterian minorities renewed the Covenants; to do so was to claim legitimacy and to gain collective purpose. But the oaths were obligatory, regardless of when they were last sworn.
Keith M. Brown et al. Henderson, Edinburgh, For commentary, see W. Ian P. David Laing, 6 vols. Wormald, op. See Alan R. Calderwood, op. Dawson, op. See also A. MacDonald, op. David Laing, Edinburgh, Wodrow Society, , p.
Mullan, op. See also S. John H. Burton and David Masson, 14 vols, Edinburgh, H. General Register House, , IV, p. Robert Pitcairn, Edinburgh, Wodrow Society, , p. Edward J. Mason ed. Stevenson, op. Stewart, op. Alexander F. But see John R. Stewart, Rethinking the Scottish Revolution , p. On the exclusion of Scots from communion for political reasons in this period, see Chris R. Keeble ed. Cowan, op. Blackwood, , p.