Robinson accepted the offer, returning only once in , to visit his mother in New York. In , Robinson was elected as a representative to the Moscow Soviet city council. This election prompted many observers to conclude that he was a Communist, leading American officials in Moscow to demand his immediate return to the United States. Robinson instead made arrangements to become a Soviet citizen and remained in the Soviet Union to complete his contract.
During his forty-four years in the Soviet Union, Robert Robinson survived Stalinism, and the German invasion and experienced the first decades of the Cold War.
He had attempted to leave the Soviet Union numerous times before finally being allowed to travel to Uganda in There he married Zylpha Mapp, an African American working in the country as an educator. Robinson finally returned to the United States in Robert Robinson passed away in in Washington, D.
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